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How to Setup a Virtualization Lab (I)


Now that I have concluded a general overview of most of the theory related to High Availability and Virtualization it is time to start testing some of those concepts and see them in action.

My goal for the next posts is to produce a series of tutorials showing how anyone can easily install a handful of virtual machines and be able to explore the wonderful possibilities provided by this technology. I will be using an old laptop powered by a Turion 64 X2 CPU with a 250 Gb SSD HD and 4 Gb of RAM combined with a desktop running Windows 7 Ultimate on a Athlon 64 X2 4800+ with 4 Gb of RAM and lots a free disk space scattered through 3 SATA hard drives.

Virtual Machines Creation


I will not go through the details of OS installation because I am assuming the ones reading these tutorials are way passed that.

I started by installing a fresh copy of Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 Standard on a secondary partition in my laptop.  Once I was done with the installation of all the available updates from Windows Update and with OS activation, I was ready to add the Hyper-V role in order to be able to install the virtual machines. To do this I just went into Server Manager/Roles, started the Add Roles Wizard, selected Hyper-V and followed the procedures. Nothing special so far, right?

Hyper-V Role

Note: All the pictures are clickable and will open a larger version in a separate window.

Scientists replicate brain using a chip

 
Scientists are getting closer to the dream of creating computer systems that can replicate the brain. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have designed a computer chip that mimics how the brain's neurons adapt in response to new information. Such chips could eventually enable communication between artificially created body parts and the brain and it could also pave the way for artificial intelligence devices.

There are about 100 billion neurons in the brain, each of which forms synapses - the connections between neurons that allow information to flow - with many other neurons. This process is known as plasticity and is believed to underpin many brain functions, such as learning and memory.

Brain

Bacteria Inspire Robotics


Researchers at Tel Aviv University have developed a computational model that better explains how bacteria move in a swarm -- and this model can be applied to human-made technologies, including computers, artificial intelligence, and robotics. The team of scientists has discovered how bacteria collectively gather information about their environment and find an optimal path to growth, even in the most complex terrains.

Studying the principles of bacteria navigation will allow researchers to design a new generation of smart robots that can form intelligent swarms, aid in the development of medical micro-robots used to diagnose or distribute medications in the body, or "de-code" systems used in social networks and throughout the Internet to gather information on consumer behaviors.

Bacteria
Simulated interacting agents collectively navigate towards a target (credit: American Friends of Tel Aviv University)

Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Explained


Hardware-assisted virtualization was first introduced on the IBM System/370 in 1972, for use with VM/370, the first virtual machine operating system. Virtualization was forgotten in the late 1970s but the proliferation of x86 servers rekindled interest in virtualization driven for the need for server consolidation; virtualization allowed a single server to replace multiple underutilized dedicated servers.

However, the x86 architecture did not meet the Popek and Goldberg Criteria to achieve the so called “classical virtualization″. To compensate for these limitations, virtualization of the x86 architecture has been accomplished through two methods: full virtualization or paravirtualization. Both create the illusion of physical hardware to achieve the goal of operating system independence from the hardware but present some trade-offs in performance and complexity.

Thus, Intel and AMD have introduced their new virtualization technologies, a handful of new instructions and — crucially — a new privilege level. The hypervisor can now run at "Ring -1"; so the guest operating systems can run in Ring 0.

Hardware virtualization leverages virtualization features built into the latest generations of CPUs from both Intel and AMD. These technologies, known as Intel VT and AMD-V respectively, provide extensions necessary to run unmodified virtual machines without the overheads inherent in full virtualization CPU emulation. In very simplistic terms these new processors provide an additional privilege mode below ring 0 in which the hypervisor can operate essentially leaving ring 0 available for unmodified guest operating systems.

A new quantum state of matter?


Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have made advances in better understanding correlated quantum matter by studying topological states in order to advance quantum computing, a method that harnesses the power of atoms and molecules for computational tasks.

Through his research, W. Vincent Liu and his team have been studying orbital degrees of freedom and nano-Kelvin cold atoms in optical lattices (a set of standing wave lasers) to better understand new quantum states of matter. From that research, a surprising topological semimetal has emerged.

quantum

Since the discovery of the quantum Hall effect by Klaus Van Klitzing in 1985, researchers like Liu have been particularly interested in studying topological states of matter, that is, properties of space unchanged under continuous deformations or distortions such as bending and stretching. The quantum Hall effect proved that when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the direction a current is flowing through a metal, a voltage is developed in the third perpendicular direction. Liu's work has yielded similar yet remarkably different results.

"We never expected a result like this based on previous studies," said Liu. "We were surprised to find that such a simple system could reveal itself as a new type of topological state -- an insulator that shares the same properties as a quantum Hall state in solid materials."
"This new quantum state is very reminiscent of quantum Hall edge states," said Liu. "It shares the same surface appearance, but the mechanism is entirely different: This Hall-like state is driven by interaction, not by an applied magnetic field."

Liu says this liquid matter could potentially lead toward topological quantum computers and new quantum devices for topological quantum telecommunication. Next, he and his team plan to measure quantities for a cold-atom system to check these predicted quantum-like properties.

Operating System-Level Virtualization Explained


This kind of server virtualization is a technique where the kernel of an operating system allows for multiple isolated user-space instances. These instances run on top of an existing host operating system and provide a set of libraries that applications interact with, giving them the illusion that they are running on a machine dedicated to its use. The instances are known as Containers, Virtual Private Servers or Virtual Environments.

Operating System-Level Virtualization

Operating system level virtualization is achieved by the host system running a single OS kernel and through its control of guest operating system functionality. Under this shared kernel virtualization the virtual guest systems each have their own root file system but share the kernel of the host operating system.

Paravirtualization Explained


“Para“ is an English affix of Greek origin that means "beside," "with," or "alongside.” Paravirtualization is another approach to server virtualization where, rather than emulate a complete hardware environment, paravirtualization acts as a thin layer, which ensures that all of the guest operating systems share the system resources and work well together.

Paravirtualization

Under paravirtualization, the kernel of the guest operating system is modified specifically to run on the hypervisor. This typically involves replacing any privileged operations that will only run in ring 0 of the CPU, with calls to the hypervisor (known as hypercalls). The hypervisor in turn performs the task on behalf of the guest kernel and also provides hypercall interfaces for other critical kernel operations such as memory management, interrupt handling and time keeping.

Full Virtualization Explained


This is probably the most common and most easily explained kind of server virtualization. When IT departments were struggling to get results with machines at full capacity, it made sense to assign one physical server to every IT function taking advantage of cheap hardware A typical enterprise would have one box for SQL, one for the Apache server and another physical box for the Exchange server. Now, each of those machines could be using only 5% of its full processing potential. This is where hardware emulators come into play in an effort to consolidate those servers.

A hardware emulator presents a simulated hardware interface to guest operating systems. In hardware emulation, the virtualization software (usually referred to as a hypervisor) actually creates an artificial hardware device with everything it needs to run an operating system and presents an emulated hardware environment that guest operating systems operate upon. This emulated hardware environment is typically referred to as a Virtual Machine Monitor or VMM.

Hardware emulation supports actual guest operating systems; the applications running in each guest operating system are running in truly isolated operating environments. This way, we can have multiple servers running on a single box, each completely independent of the other. The VMM provides the guest OS with a complete emulation of the underlying hardware and for this reason, this kind of virtualization is also referred to as Full Virtualization.

Quantum cryptography breached?

Quantum cryptography has been pushed onto the market as a way to provide absolute security for communications and, as far as we know, no current quantum cryptographic system has been compromised in the field. It is already used in Swiss elections to ensure that electronic vote data is securely transmitted to central locations.

Quantum cryptography relies on the concept of entanglement. With entanglement, some statistical correlations are measured to be larger than those found in experiments based purely on classical physics. Cryptographic security works by using the correlations between entangled photons pairs to generate a common secret key. If an eavesdropper intercepts the quantum part of the signal, the statistics change, revealing the presence of an interloper.

The Swiss general approach can be summed up as follows: if you can fool a detector into thinking a classical light pulse is actually a quantum light pulse, then you might just be able to defeat a quantum cryptographic system. But even then the attack should fail, because quantum entangled states have statistics that cannot be achieved with classical light sources—by comparing statistics, you could unmask the deception.

But there's a catch here. I can make a classical signal that is perfectly correlated to any signal at all, provided I have time to measure said signal and replicate it appropriately. In other words, these statistical arguments only apply when there is no causal connection between the two measurements.

You might think that this makes intercepting the quantum goodness of a cryptographic system easy. But you would be wrong. When Eve intercepts the photons from the transmitting station run by Alice, she also destroys the photons. And even though she gets a result from her measurement, she cannot know the photons' full state. Thus, she cannot recreate, at the single photon level, a state that will ensure that Bob, at the receiving station, will observe identical measurements.


That is the theory anyway. But this is where the second loophole comes into play. We often assume that the detectors are actually detecting what we think they are detecting. In practice, there is no such thing as a single photon, single polarization detector. Instead, what we use is a filter that only allows a particular polarization of light to pass and an intensity detector to look for light. The filter doesn't care how many photons pass through, while the detector plays lots of games to try and be single photon sensitive when, ultimately, it is not. It's this gap between theory and practice that allows a carefully manipulated classical light beam to fool a detector into reporting single photon clicks.

Since Eve has measured the polarization state of the photon, she knows what polarization state to set on her classical light pulse in order to fake Bob into recording the same measurement result. When Bob and Alice compare notes, they get the right answers and assume everything is on the up and up.
The researchers demonstrated that this attack succeeds with standard (but not commercial) quantum cryptography equipment under a range of different circumstances. In fact, they could make the setup outperform the quantum implementation for some particular settings.

(Adapted from ArsTechnica)

Software to Prevent Child Abuse

Investigators estimate that there are currently more than 15 million photographs and videos of child abuse victims circulating on the Internet, or in the Darknet. By the time this material has been tracked down and deleted, pedophiles have long since downloaded it to their computers. Seeking and tracking hundreds of thousands of illegal media files in the suspect’s computer was tedious and extremely time-consuming process for investigators, until now.

Researchers from Fraunhofer Institute come up with an automated assistance system, called “desCRY”, that can detect child-pornographic images and video, from among even large volumes of data.
 
desCRY search results

The desCRY software uses novel pattern-recognition processes to navigate through digital photos and videos in search of illegal content, no matter how well-hidden it may be. The heart of the software consists of intelligent pattern-recognition algorithms that automatically analyze and classify images and video sequences combining technologies such as facial and skin-tone recognition with contextual and scene analyses to identify suspicious content.

The software searches all of the files in a computer, e-mail attachments and archives included and has many types of filtering allowing for a wide variety of search options. It can perform content-based data sorting and filtering, for instance. This way, investigators can sort files by person, object or location, for example. 
The algorithms use up to several thousand characteristics that describe properties such as color, texture and contours in order to analyze whether an image depicts child abuse. If the system is run on a standard PC, it classifies up to ten images per second, drastically accelerating the investigation works.

Quantum Cloning Advances

Quantum cloning is the process that takes an arbitrary, unknown quantum state and makes an exact copy without altering the original state in any way. Quantum cloning is forbidden by the laws of quantum mechanics as shown by the no cloning theorem. Though perfect quantum cloning is not possible, it is possible to perform imperfect cloning, where the copies have a non-unit fidelity with the state being cloned.

The quantum cloning operation is the best way to make copies of quantum information therefore cloning is an important task in quantum information processing, especially in the context of quantum cryptography. Researchers are seeking ways to build quantum cloning machines, which work at the so called quantum limit. Quantum cloning is difficult because quantum mechanics laws only allow for an approximate copy—not an exact copy—of an original quantum state to be made, as measuring such a state prior to its cloning would alter it. The first cloning machine relied on stimulated emission to copy quantum information encoded into single photons.

Scientists in China have now produced a theory for a quantum cloning machine able to produce several copies of the state of a particle at atomic or sub-atomic scale, or quantum state. A team from Henan Universities in China, in collaboration with another team at the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, have produced a theory for a quantum cloning machine able to produce several copies of the state of a particle at atomic or sub-atomic scale, or quantum state. The advance could have implications for quantum information processing methods used, for example, in message encryption systems.

In this study, researchers have demonstrated that it is theoretically possible to create four approximate copies of an initial quantum state, in a process called asymmetric cloning. The authors have extended previous work that was limited to quantum cloning providing only two or three copies of the original state. One key challenge was that the quality of the approximate copy decreases as the number of copies increases.

The authors were able to optimize the quality of the cloned copies, thus yielding four good approximations of the initial quantum state. They have also demonstrated that their quantum cloning machine has the advantage of being universal and therefore is able to work with any quantum state, ranging from a photon to an atom. Asymmetric quantum cloning has applications in analyzing the security of messages encryption systems, based on shared secret quantum keys.

Server Virtualization Explained


You have probably heard about lots of distinct types of server virtualization; full, bare metal, para-virtualization, guest OS, OS assisted, hardware assisted, hosted, OS level, kernel level, shared kernel, hardware emulation, hardware virtualization, hypervisor based, containers or native virtualization. Confusing, right?

Fear not my faithful readers; the whole purpose of this blog is exactly to explain these things so that everyone can have a clear view over issues usually restricted to a bunch of geeks. But keep in mind that some of these terms are popularized by certain vendors and do not have a common industry-wide acceptance. Plus, many of the terms are used rather loosely and interchangeably (which is why they are so confusing).

Although others classify the current virtualization techniques in a different way, I will use the following criteria:

  1. Full Virtualization;
  2. Para-Virtualization;
  3. Operating System-level Virtualization;
  4. Hardware assisted virtualization.

On the following exciting chapters I will explain these techniques, one by one, but before that I believe it would be useful to give you a quick introduction to some underlying concepts.