After the microcomputers, came the world of distributed systems. One important characteristic of the distributed computing environment was that all of the major OSs were available on small, low-cost servers. This feature meant that it was easy for various departments or any other corporate group to purchase servers outside the control of the traditional, centralized IT environment. As a result, applications often just appeared without following any of the standard development processes. Engineers programmed applications on their desktop workstations and used them for what later proved to be mission-critical or revenue-sensitive purposes. As they shared applications with others in their departments, their workstations became servers that served many people within the organization.
In the distributed computing environment, it was common for applications to be developed following a one-application-to-one-server model. Because funding for application development comes from vertical business units, and they insist on having their applications on their own servers, each time an application is put into production, another server is added. The problem created by this approach is significant because the one-application-to-one-server model is really a misnomer. In reality, each new application generally requires the addition of at least three new servers, and often requires more as follows: development servers, test servers, training servers and cluster and disaster recovery servers.
Therefore, it became standard procedure in big corporations to purchase 8 or 10 servers for every new application being deployed. It was the prelude for the enormous bubble that ultimately would cause the collapse of many organization who thought cyberspace was an easy and limitless way to make money.
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